Kilikia, also known as the Armenian Kingdom of Kilikia, was a small mountainous country on the Latin, as it was transliterated directly from the Greek form Κιλικία. It was well known during the rule of Armenian king Tigran the Great, the most powerful ruler of the Near East. He controlled all the lands between the three great seas of the ancient world.
The Kilician king who ruled in Tarsus as vassals of the Persians managed to retain a certain degree of independence and succeeded in expanding their territory as far as Cappadocia and Pamphylia. With time, and against a background of growing political uncertainty (uprising at Celali and Saruca / Sebkan), the demands of these wandering herdsmen led to the flat parts of Kilikia near the coast being turned over the winter pastures, where fewer and fewer people settled, and it was only when the nomadic way of life had to be abandoned in the late 19th century that farming returned to the coastal plain again.